Thursday, April 2, 2020
European Union Essay, Research Paper The Delegation of Trade Authority in the EU Even though, for the past several decennaries, member provinces of the European Union ( EU ) have been derelict with their power to move as independent participants in international trade dialogues, they have late begun to recapture some of their lost trade sovereignty. ( Kennett 1996 ) Neither the European Court of Justice 1994? s sentiment, nor the 1997 formal reform of trade policy procedure at Amsterdam delegated full negociating power to the Commission over the alleged, new trade issues of services and rational belongings. Alternatively the member provinces accepted a intercrossed signifier of decision-making to enable impromptu, instead than a structural, per Se, deputation of legal power. As such, this shows a displacement in the sensed tradeoff between economic involvements and ideological bias on the portion of cardinal member provinces. The inquiry now arises as to who speaks for Europe? History has shown that there has been a crisp difference between political and economic kingdoms in respect to Europe. We will write a custom essay sample on European Union Essay Research Paper The Delegation or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In footings of international political relations, member provinces speak for themselves. Yet, in contrast to the international political scene, international trade in the European Community was granted sole competency. ( Weiler 1991 ) Whether it is through bilateral, regional or many-sided trade dialogues, Europe communally speaks with one voice and more significantly negotiates through one agent, that being the European Commission. It seems as though the? individual voice? sing trade policy is more important now, more than of all time, for Europe. The terminal of the cold war accelerated the displacement of the focal point of competition from security to economics. Economic competition on a planetary graduated table is non based on market kineticss, but on the capacity of the provinces to use their ain markets as effectual negotiating pieces in planetary trade wars. Meanwhile, trade affairs are going more political with the blurring of foreign policy and commercial tools in the mode of diplomatic negotiations. The new trade docket touches upon the countries that are portion of the domestic societal cloth and they so therefore are most sensitive to external intervention. As the longest and deepest incorporate policy in the EU, external trade composes a critical trial for the at hand argument over the allotment of power between the centre and the provinces. The thought of? common voice? , ? common involvement? and? common fate? are in and of themselves linked. Therefore, whether a policy entity can project congruousness of purpose externally is a cardinal trial of the grade of integrating between its constituting elements. ( Denza 1996 ) Above all, the argument over trade authorization has been a contemplation and a trial of a larger ideological conflict over European integrating. The member provinces? place over this issue has been a map of both their distinguishable trade involvements and their ideological leanings sing sovereignty transportations. The weight between these two motives has shifted in the past decennary, for both structural and conjunctural grounds. This has reflected itself in a displacement between economic and sovereignty concerns over the old ages. Since the sign language of the Treaty of Rome, European integrating has systematically been that of progressive expansionism of over an even broader scope of policy countries, from research and development to the environment to the Single European Act in 1986 to the Maastricht Treaty in 1991. However, most of these countries have non been to the full transferred to the degree of the EC. Conversely, a few policies have been under Community amenableness from the beginning. When it came to merchandise, the Treaty of Rome was a radical papers. It non merely contained wide injunctions for accomplishing free trade internally, but it besides granted the new supranational entity an external personality with the authorization to lucubrate, negotiate and implement all facets of trade dealingss with the remainder of the universe. ( Devuyst 1995 ) In pattern though this was done through the constitution of a common commercial policy based upon three rules. A common external tarrif, common trade understandings with 3rd states and the unvarying application of trade instruments across member provinces, made up these three rules. Due to two cardinal principles the founding member provinces began to depute trade on a corporate degree. First, the history of trade policy in advanced industrial democracies, like the United States, showed that such deputation helped insulate the policy-making procedure from domestic force per unit areas, which in bend promoted a more bro ad international trade order. The 2nd principle was, a individual voice in trade policy was expected to ease the decision of trade understandings with 3rd states and increase external influence. Until the Amsterdam Summit the Treaty of Rome? s original diction, which granted the Community sole competency in trade policy, remained unchanged. ( Devuyst 1992 ) The commissariats finding the trade policy-making procedure delegated authorization from the single provinces and their parliaments to the assembly of European provinces, moving jointly through the Council of Ministers. This attack can be understood in classical principal-agent footings, where the member provinces, as principals, have delegated their authorization to reason trade understandings to the European Community, moving as the agent. ( Pollack 1995 ) It is evident through this attack that the member states represent the ultimate authorization. The behavior of trade policy in pattern reveals a 2nd degree of deputation. In this case the principal was the Council of Ministers, to the agents, which is the European Commission. The Commission so proceeds to lucubrate proposals for the induction and content of international trade dialogues. The Committee, which is made up of senior civil retainers and trade experts from other provinces every bit good as Commission representatives, examines and amends Commission proposals on a consensual footing, before conveying them to the Committee of Permanent Representatives ( COREPER ) . These proposals later make their manner to the General Affairs Council, which in bend custodies out a negociating authorization to the Commission. In theory the authorization is agreed upon on a qualified bulk footing. Though, in pattern, member provinces have ever managed to make consensus on a common text at this phase of the procedure, much like most other policy devising in the EU. Commission functionari es, which represent the EU under the authorization of the Commissioner in charge of external economic personal businesss conduct international trade dialogues, within the bounds set by the Council? s authorization. Member provinces are allowed to detect but non talk in GATT plenary Sessionss. At the decision of the dialogues, the Council approves or rejects the trade understanding. The European Parliament has small say in this procedure ; it is informed on an informal footing and is consulted upon by before confirmation. There are two built-in inquiries which emerge from this deputation of authorization, foremost, how much control does each province retain over trade policy and how much control do the member provinces, as a collective, retain over its behavior by the Commission. In respect to the original inquiry of who speaks for Europe, there need non be an premise that the reply is unambiguously linked to the proficient issue of competency. In footings of competency, we refer to mandate, representation and confirmation. There must be a differentiation between four phases in the dialogue of international understandings: ( 1 ) the design of a negotiating authorization ; ( 2 ) representation of parties during dialogues ; ( 3 ) confirmation of the understanding one time negotiated ; ( 4 ) execution and enforcement of the understanding once it has been brought into force. Whether the Community is perceived to talk with? one voice? , as stated before, is most relevant during the negotiating but is besides affected by shared outlooks about the confirmation phase. During the two decennaries following the Treaty of Rome, the Commission successfully negotiated on behalf of its members two major trade unit of ammunitions under GATT, every bit good as infinite bilateral trade understandings. ( Devuyst 1995 ) When the new issues, such as rational belongings, crawl up into the international trade docket in the? 80? s, the foundations of the Community? s trade competency began to acquire questioned. Due to the enlargement of the universe trade docket onto policies traditionally non considered at the? boundary line? , but instead, ? inside the province? , forced an expressed internal EU argument on the issue of competency. Additionally, the Uruguay unit of ammunition was designed to present new issues to manus, such as rational belongings and trade related investing steps including services. These services ranged from the telecommunication substructure to professional accreditation and banking, these countries which had in the past fallen under domest ic legal power and where concerns about outwardnesss, consumer protection and the public goods were by and large more acute than for trade in goods. Therefore, the issue of trade deputation came to be framed as follows, who, of the member provinces or Commission, was responsible for negociating these new issues depended on one? s reading of the term trade policy, which was used in the Treaty of Rome. A political via media seemed necessary, the Ministeral declaration establishing the Uruguay Round at Punta del Este in 1986 was approved both by the Council and by member authoritiess, proroguing the inquiry of competency until the terminal of the unit of ammunition. ( Arnall 1996 ) Regardless of what the result was to be, the fact remained that there would be integrity of representation throughout the dialogues. The impermanent deputation trade did non travel swimmingly throughout the unit of ammunition. The long-standing difference over competency crystallized over the EC-US? Blair House Agreement? on agribusiness, negotiated by an independent Commission in 1992 after many old ages of dead end. Yet, one time the US negotiants leaked inside informations of the understanding, France declared its absolute resistance and in bend rallied the support of several other provinces including, Germany. The Gallic Prime Minister vowed to contend non merely the content of the understanding but the institutional conditions under which it had been reached. In add-on, the Prime Minister told the EU Commission in 1993 that they do non swear Britian, and that the British function was that of retainer to the Council. Although, after much negotiating, diplomatic negotiations and hard exchanges, the understanding was renegotiated with grants to France? s place. Nonetheless, the Blair House crisis represented som ething of much more significance ; it represented a turning point in the deputation of dialogue of authorization to supranational representatives. The following issue sing the Round was debate amongst member provinces as to whether or non they should subscribe the Final Act separately or allow the Commission do it on their behalf. They finally came up with an EU Compromise ; whereby, Greece, the Council President and External Trade Commissioner Leon Brittian, signed the Act in 1994 on behalf of the Community, while representatives of each member province signed in the name of their several authoritiess. In a assorted batch kind of manner the single member provinces asserted their competency symbolically, while non necessitating parliamentary confirmation. Additionally, one of the Uruguay Round? s results was the formal arrangement of GATT under the umbrella of the so new World Trade Organization ( WTO ) . The inquiry of rank so caused an ineluctable legal challenge for the EC, even though the remainder of the universe left it up to the Europeans to make up ones mind how it would be settled. The EC neer officially substituted the member provinces in GATT, whose creative activity proceeded the creative activity of the Community. Since the GATT was merely a proverbial understanding with signers but no members, because the inquiry of rank had neer arisen. ( Denza, 1996 ) Therefore, for all purposes and purposes the EC, represented by the Commission, had been accepted by the other GATT spouses as one of them. More so though is the fact that officially replacing the provinces by the EC would hold a cost, since the single vote rights of the member provinces in GATT would give manner to a more radical, individual ballot. The creative activity of the WTO, with a broader trade docket than GATT, forced the issue of trade authorization to the head. ( Devuyst 1995 ) Several of the member provinces were loath to give up full subdivisions of their trade policy ; they insisted on being granted their ain single competences, with regard to the new issues of rational belongings and the such, reasoning that these were non covered under the original Treaty of Rome. The bottom line remains that these member provinces picked their sides sing the competency argument as a map of their personal penchants on the lines of two dimensions- economic and ideological penchants. Sing the economic forepart, greater fight in these new countries called for broad trade policies, which, in bend, seemed best served by a Community sole trade competency, while on the ideological forepart, a state? s place is determined by a combination of its overall attitude towards deputation of sovereignty at the EU degree, and by its grade of trust in the Commission. If, a provinces penchants are aligned likewise along both dimensions it is easy to foretell its side in the argument over competency. A province that is both uncompetitive and sovereignty-conscious will choose for limitation of the Community? s external trade competency, and frailty versa. If a provinces penchants contradict each other along these two dimensions, so its side in the competency argument will be deter mined by their comparative weight. Member provinces who are opposed to sole competency autumn under three wide classs. It is just to state that France was at the helm of the sovereignty cantonment for ideological grounds, attributed to the fact of its strong support for aggressive liberalisation during the Round and its high fight when it came to services. Similarly, it is difficult to understand why England joined this sovereignty cantonment for grounds other than the ideological. Britian had traditionally been one of the most broad provinces in the EU, frequently combating against other states veto? s when it came to liberalisation, particularly in the industries of fiscal and telecommunication services. Germany on the other manus tantrums into the 2nd class of provinces falling into the anti-exclusive competency degree Celsius A for both economic and ideological grounds. More than any other EU province Germany? s regulators were extremely protective of their powers. As good, during the? 90? s the trade ministry had non been converted to the free trade Gospel in the country of telecommunications and banking. Ironically enough these are countries which had non been liberalized yet internally and did non look competitory internationally. Nonetheless Germany was accommodating to alterations in the universe economic system with increasing competitory service industries. Therefore, it was above all else on ideological evidences that Germany was defying transportation of sovereignty. Finally, there were those states which were motivated by sectored concerns. Portgual, for case opposed the Commision because of its handling of fabric issues during the Uruguay Round. On the other side of the spectrum, irrespectively of their economic fight in services, states such as Italy, Belgium and Ireland, with traditional pro-integration stances, backed the Commission fixedly. These states recognized that without the negociating umbrella of the whole Community, they would ever be at the clemency of the EU? s large trade spouses
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Making the Case to Get a Business Degree Business is a popular academic path for many students. These are just some of the reasons to major in business at the undergraduate or graduate level. Business is a Practical Major Business is sometimes known as the play it safe major because it is a practical choice for almost anyone. Every organization, regardless of industry, relies on business principles to prosper. Individuals who have a solid business education are not only poised to start their own business, they also have the practical skills needed to excel in a variety of positions in the industry of their choice. Demand for Business Majors is High The demand for business majors will always be high because there is an endless number of career opportunities available to individuals with a good business education. Employers in every industry need people who have been trained to organize, plan, and manage within an organization. In fact, there are many companies in the business industry who rely on business school recruiting alone to acquire new employees. You Could Earn a High Starting Salary There are some individuals who spend more than $100,000 on a graduate-level business education. These individuals know that they will make all of that money back within a year or two after graduation if they can find the right position. Starting salaries for business majors can be high, even at the undergraduate level. According to Census Bureau data, business is one of the highest paying majors. In fact, the only majors that pay more are architecture and engineering; computers, mathematics and statistics; and health. Students who earn an advanced degree, like an MBA, can earn even more. An advanced degree can make you eligible for management positions with very lucrative salaries, such as Chief Executive Officer or Chief Finance Officer. There are Plenty of Opportunities for Specialization Majoring in business isnt as straightforward as most people believe it is. There are more opportunities for specialization in business than most other fields. Business majors can choose to specialize in accounting, finance, human resources, marketing, nonprofits, management, real estate, or any path that relates to business and industry. If you arent sure what you want to do for the rest of your life, but you need to pick a major, business is a good option. You can always choose a specialization that fits your personality and career goals later on. You Could Start Your Own Business Most business programsÃ¢ - at the undergraduate and graduate levelÃ¢ - contain core business courses in accounting, finance, marketing, management, and other essential business topics. The knowledge and skills that you obtain in these core classes are easily transferable to entrepreneurial pursuits, which means that you could easily start your own business after your earn your business degree. If you already know that you want to start your own company, you could major in business and minor or specialize in entrepreneurship to give yourself an extra edge.
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Ensuring a Creative and Innovative Workforce - Essay Example The recent shift from industrial to knowledge economies has been rapid and abrupt, leading to a series of novel discoveries and innovation in various fields across all sectors of the economy, thereby drastically increasing the significance of creating and developing a highly creative workforce. The fact that innovation is the key to human survival, has been reasserted over the years, with a wide range of creative and innovative ideas being generated and applied for human consumption. Companies today rate creativity and innovation as highly essential pre-requisite of strategies, designed to achieve their organizational goals. Various challenges can be overcome and addressed through sheer creativity, which are faced by the 21st century, such as global warming and sustainable economic development to name a few. Organizational creativity is one of the most promising issues, which is now being probed by managers and leaders, and its relevance and significance is acknowledged by the emerge nce in the recent decades. Definitions: Creativity is defined as the development of novel and useful ideas (Hemlin et al., in Mumford, 2011). According to Plucker et al., (2004) the term creativity is defined as "...the interaction among aptitude, process, and environment by which an individual or group produces a perceptible product that is both novel and useful as defined within a social context". According to Ford (1995) "Creativity is a context specific, subjective judgment of the novelty and value of an outcome of an individual's or a collective's behavior (West, 1997, Pp. 2). Innovation in generic terms refers to the development and application of novel ideas, products or services, or technologies in an organization. According to Van de Ven (1986) the process of innovation is defined as "the development and implementation of new ideas by people who over time engage in transactions with others within an institutional context. This definition is sufficiently general to apply to a wide variety of technical, product, process, and administrative kinds of innovations. From a managerial viewpoint, to understand the process of innovation is to understand the factors that facilitate and inhibit the development of innovations" (Sisaye, 2001, Pp. 105). In a nutshell, the concept of creativity entails the application of a mental as well as a social process which is fuelled by an insight regarding the future demands and requirements of consumers, and generating ideas and concepts in response to the meet the requirements of the same. Innovation on the other hand, refers to the successful application of the said ideas and concepts with a view to generate profitable outcomes. In order to successfully create and develop innovative products and ideas, it is essential for the management to hire and recruit a highly creative workforce and develop a highly productive workforce by encouraging creativity and innovation within organizations. Significance and relevance of the co ncepts as applied to organizations: Creativity is the first step or foundation of innovation, which can be achieved through the successful implementation of the creative ideas generated by the talented workforce. Innovation is one of the crucial and inevitable elements of organizational success, more so in the highly advanced society, which is practically driven
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Doing gender - Essay Example We understand in this it is not so much an achievement. Also gender can be achieved only till the very early years after which it becomes static and unchangeable. The second term Ã¢â¬ËconstructedÃ¢â¬â¢ is perhaps of most importance to both anthropologists and social scientists who constantly lay bare the various apparatus working within a societal unit, be it a family, a state or a community which defines behaviour codes pertinent to a certain gender and anomalous to another. In this paper we shall take up the character of Monica Geller from the sitcom that gave television a trailblazer Friends and see how gender is constructed everyday through actions, through pre-conceived notions and through popular belief. The T.V show Friends had been on air from September 22, 1994 to May 6, 2004. During the course of which we saw the development and bonding of six friends Chandler Bing, Rachel Green, Phoebe Buffay, Monica Geller, Ross Geller and Joey Tribbiani. For a better understanding of the issue we shall deal in it becomes imperative to discuss in a nutshell the kind of relationship that the six friends share. Monica Geller and Ross Geller are siblings, Monica being the younger, Rachel is her high school friend who was dated by many guys unlike her. Ross too had a crush on Rachel in those days. Ross and Chandler are friends from college. Chandler who lives across the hall from Monica shares his apartment with an aspiring television actor Joey Tribbiani. Phoebe we learn later had been MonicaÃ¢â¬â¢s roommate who had moved out but remained friends. From the very first episode Monica appears to be unlike her delicate form. Her personality exudes an aura of extreme strength. Her nature is extremely over powering and sheÃ¢â¬â¢s used to getting her way in everything. She seems to be weather-beaten in that she knows the world more than her friend Rachel Green who in the pilot episode comes out as someone to whom the only way of not depending on the parents was by get ting married. This very idea accorded to Rachel is also gender specific. Even though we laugh at the momentary humour, it is in fact a gender construction that pretty women(or for that matter women in general) can spend their lives without having to earn their bread by depending on the patriarchy which primarily constitutes of the father and later the husband. That Rachel had been moulded into such an idea is also a form of interpellation by the society. That she finds nothing wrong with it her acceptance of her gender role as daughter and wife (in both cases dependant) is her way of accepting a concept of gender which is simply constructed. In contrast Monica who is said to be bossy and competitive is portrayed as a type which in the later seasons would verge on tomboyishness and trace back its roots to her obesity in her school years and the second-shot treatment she always received from her parents who would be too busy doting on their first born Ross. This preference of the male child over the female child is the most obvious kind of gender differentiation. But that Monica decides to fight back instead of accepting her place as the Ã¢â¬ËsecondÃ¢â¬â¢
Monday, January 27, 2020
Factors That Underpin The Hr Planning Human resource planning is a very important task for any organization. This planning plays a vital role in managing the employees of the organization. This plan helps to meet the required human resources of any organization. Actually it helps to identify what type of employees, how many employees will be required in the organization. It also provides information about the sources of required human resource need of the organization. These are some business factors that underpin human resource planning in a organization. Some important factors are explained below. Nature of business Size of the business Type of business Management policy Resource of the business Organization culture Location of the business Business environment Human Resource Requirements in given situation Human Resource (HR) is an important part for any organization. It is part and parcel for every organization. An organization cannot do anything without Human Resource. The success and failure of an organization mostly depends on the successfully implementation of the Human Resource policies and programs. The reason is that most of the organizational goal is achieved through it. If any organization is not so care about human resource department it must suffer in the long run. So before planning Human Resource (HR) requirements of any firm it must have to be given very much emphasis. Human Resource (HR) is must for every department of a firm. A firm usually has many departments. It is very much essential to manage Human Resource in every department. Without Human Resource (HR) it is probably impossible to manage day to day activities of the firm. It includes from the bottom level to the top level of the firm. Generally the bottom level HR implements the decision taken by the top level management. For example if we analyze HR requirements of a production oriented firm or manufacturing firm we will see that there needs a wide range of human resource. There must have some top level executives who formulate plan for production departments. There also have some middle level and lower level human resource who will implement the plan formulate by the top level executives. Development of HR plan for an organization: Once the analysis of the required personnel is complete, then the HR planning can begin. HR planning consists of four phases that are described below: Phase1. Formulation It is very important that the HR department of an organization should have direct relation with the rest of the department. Every organization has vision objectives. This vision statement indicates the overall image of the firms. For planning HR in an organization the first step is formulation of the policy about the HR needs of various departments. Phase2. Development It is the second phase of the HR planning in an organization in this step a SWOT analysis is conducted to identify the overall strength, weakness, opportunities and threats. This SWOT analysis provides important outlook about what action should need in future to cope with the changing environment by correctly planning the required human resource in the organization. The SWOT analysis provides answer about the following question; What about internal strengths? What about internal weaknesses? What is the opportunity? What are the external threats? The topics that are included in the SWOT Analysis might include personnel capabilities, benefit, employee services, information management systems, official facilities, and the reputation of human resources within the organization. Phase3 .Implementation It is short-term objectives which should be established In order to complete long-term strategies in the firm. Short-term objectives are the objectives that can be accomplished within six months to one year. This short term objectives should be fulfill by short term goal. On the other hand long term objectives should be fulfilling by long term goal. It should be remembered that no short term objectives is fulfill by long term goal and vice versa. Phase 4. Evaluation HR planning should be evaluated in regular basis. Human resource planning must reflect the target based on the measurable items. Once the human resource planning is done, it is essential to evaluate the success of that planning. If there is any mistake found, necessary steps should be taken in an urgent manner. There are two common ways in which we can measure the success of the plan: such as time and budget. How HRM contribute to meet objectives of organization: Human resource plan plays very vital role in meeting the organizationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s objectives. Actually organization does mean employees of the organization rather than organization itself. Objectives of any organization are achieved by the employees of that organization. One organization can be differentiated from other organizations by the performances of employees of respective organization. Because we can see that different organizations perform differently and make different level of profit in the same industry only for human resource. Human resource plan has other plans to meet the objectives of the organization. Human resource plan has the following plans: Personnel planning indicate the process of deciding what positions the organizations will have to fill and how to fill them. Training and development plan is developed to make the employees of the organization skilled necessary to perform better and increase the efficiency level that ultimately contributes to meeting t he objectives. Compensation plan is another vital part of human resource plan. It is very important because the performance of the employees depends on the satisfaction level and employees are the ultimate performers. Strategic compensation plan helps to the organization to hire high quality employees and retain them. Labor relation plan is also required for some certain reasons. It is required to maintain good relation with labor union to meet any unexpected situation. Sometimes labors strike and this hampers the normal business operations of the organization. Sometimes it is required to reach an agreement wage, working hours etc. Security and safety plan provides the security of the jobs of employees, which ultimately makes the employees more satisfied. Satisfied employees perform better for the organization. Personnel forecast means estimating the required number of employees on the basis of production volume or expected revenues. Variation in forecasting is very costly for the o rganization. In fact Human resource planning creates value by engaging activities that produce the employee behaviors that company needs to achieve organizational goals and objectives. So all these plans under human resource planning help the organization to meet the objectives of the organization more efficiently. Impact of organizational structure and culture on management of HR Organizational structure and also organizational culture have certainly some impact on the management of human resource of the organization. Actually human resource management is the policy and practices involved in carrying out the human resource aspects of a management position including recruiting, training, appraising and compensating employees and also it is concerned about labor relations, health, safety and fairness. In fact, the size of the human resource department reflects the size of the organization. Large organization generally have large human resource department and small organizations have small human resource department with few employees. It is generally found that there is one Hr employee for every 100 employees. So organizational structure affects the management of human resource of an organization. Organizational culture also has some impact on the management of human resource of any business organization. If human resource department works as an independent body it can produce better benefit for the organization. If independence is the culture of an organization in case of decision making, it is helpful for the human resource department to make wise decision. So we can conclude that a fair practice in the organization makes the management of human resources more effective and fruitful for the organization. Monitoring the effectiveness of HRM The failure or success of an organization largely depends on the HRM policies. The higher authority of an organization make HR plan and programs. This plan is implemented by the HR manager and the working level management. The HR manger also make plan for the human resource. It includes conducting job analysis, planning labor needs and requirements of the job candidates, selecting job candidates, orienting and training new employees, managing wages and salaries, providing incentives and benefits, appraising performances, communicating( interviewing, counseling, disciplining) , training and developing manager and building employment commitment. All these plans are prepared and implemented by the HR specialists. After implementing this plan, the HR specialists monitor to see what it impact on the organizational performances. For example the HR specialist wants to know whether they hire the right people for the right position after analyzing the performances of the employees. If the per formances are not satisfactory, HR specialist or manager arrange raining programs to teach the employees, so that they can perform better. If after all these efforts, performances are not satisfactory the HR manager can fire the employees from the organization. They also manage various incentives to the employees to get better service by satisfying them. After all the HR specialists always monitor the task performed by the employees and measure the effectiveness of the HRM policies prepared by them. Recommendations: it is clear to us that without planning and implementing a right HR policy in an organization, it is not possible to achieve the target. If the HR policy is not properly installed, the overall efforts will fail in vain. So it should be given the top most priority. We have some recommendation regarding HRM policies for any kind of organization which want to achieve success through imparting it. Some recommendations are as follows: Making clear plan on HRM Hire the right people Use right selection tools Training employees based on need Not committing unfair labor practice Increasing employees loyalty through participation Conclusion: Human resource management is very essential and effective for maintaining an organization in a prudent manner. The most success of an organization depends on the appropriate HR policy. Human resource plan plays very vital role in meeting the organizationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s objectives. So every organization gives more emphasis for selecting the right people for the right position. After all it is most useful for any firm to implement the HR policy in prudent manner. Both long and short term objectives should be meet through it in accordance with the required necessity.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Cheerleading is Not a Sport According to Joe Hatton, the author of the article, Ã¢â¬Å"Sports Beat - The sport of cheerleading: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s more than just pompoms and smiles,Ã¢â¬ cheerleading is a sport because it requires strength, balance, and coordination. The major claim of the article is Ã¢â¬Å"cheerleading is a sport - plain and simple - and cheerleaders are true athletesÃ¢â¬ (Hatton C-04). The article offers the following arguments in support of the claim. Hatton claims because cheerleaders are athletes, cheerleading is a sport. Hatton also says cheerleading is a sport because of the competitive aspects. We believe cheerleading is not a sport, because not all cheerleaders compete. Most cheerleaders rarely, if ever, show athleticism. Cheerleading is an activity based on confidence and school spirit. Activities in schools such as debate clubs revolve around the trust, confidence and competition of the team members yet most people do not consider debate club a sport. In HattonÃ¢â¬â¢s article, he acknowledges many people and organization do not identify cheerleading as a sport. The premier collegiate sports organization in the country, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (Ã¢â¬Å"NCAAÃ¢â¬ ), does not recognize cheerleading as a sport (Ã¢â¬Å"Equal OpportunityÃ¢â¬ ). Also, according to the National Federation of High School Athletic Associations, fewer than half the states in country recognize cheerleading as a sport (Ã¢â¬Å"NFHSÃ¢â¬ ). The fact that a respected national athletic organization and a majority of states do not recognize cheerleading as a sport implies that it is viewed primarily as entertainment. We believe the arguments in the article to be unfounded and therefore view the claim that cheerleading is a sport to be untrue. There is more supp... ...leading should not be considered a sport because it is not typically undertaken in a competitive environment and its primary purpose is to lead Ã¢â¬Å"cheering of spectators as at a sports contestÃ¢â¬ (Dictionary.com). Works Cited Dictionary.com. Lexico Publishing Group, LLC. 2003. 9 October 2003. http://dictionary.reference.com/. Ã¢â¬Å"Equal Opportunity In Intercollegiate Athletics: Requirements Under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972.Ã¢â¬ U.S. Department of Education. 27 August 1997. 9 October 2003. http://classweb.gmu.edu/jkozlows/460tixa.html. Hatton, Joe. Ã¢â¬Å"Sports Beat - The Sport of Cheerleading: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a lot More than Just Pompoms and Smiles.Ã¢â¬ Providence Journal Bulletin 9 May 2003: C-04 LexisNexis CD-ROM. 13 May 2003. Ã¢â¬Å"NFHS.Ã¢â¬ National Federation of State High School Associations. 2003. 9 October 2003. http://www.nfhs.org/.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY OBAFEMI AWOLOWO UNIVERSITY, ILE-IFE. GROUP WORK SOCIAL REFORMATION CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. 0 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Dunn, Mohr, Wilson and Wittert (2007) argued that the definition of fast food is inconsistent even within a simple sample. This has allowed participants to define fast food from list of different food items. The common menu items at fast food restaurants include fish and chips, sandwiches, hamburgers, fried chicken, French fries, chicken nuggets, tacos, pizza, hot dogs, and ice cream (Ayse, Lale & Metin, 2007).Moreover there are studies done at Berkeley University in 2009, the closer people live to a fast food restaurant, the higher their risk of becoming obese (Davis, 2011). Although, people indicated a very broad definition of fast food when asked what style of foods classified as fast food(including burgers, fish and chips, meat pies and pasties and brought (sand-wiches), when discussing fast food, they gave example which focused only on traditional fast food items such as burgers and chips from large franchises.Fast food according to the Oxford Dictionary of Contemporary English- is hot food that is served very quickly in special restaurant and often taken away to be eaten in the streets. Equally, fast food is the term given to food that can be prepared and served with low preparation time. The food is sold in a restaurant or store with preheated cooking ingredients and served to the customers in a package form for take-out or take away. The term Ã¢â¬Å"Fast FoodÃ¢â¬ was recognized by Merriam-Webster in 1951.In as much as the importance of fast food in contemporary society cannot be overemphasized, it is pertinent to tilt focus to the emergence of fast food, and how it became pivotal in feeding and satiating the society to a remarkable extent. The historical background of fast food can be traced to urban development. The development was deeply rooted in sociological inevitability. Furthermore, in the Middle A ges, large towns and major urban areas such as London and Paris supported vendors that sold dishes such as pies, pastries, pancakes, wafers and cooked meats.In Roman cities during the antiquity, 1 many of these establishments catered for those who had no means to cook on their own. Travelers, as well such as pilgrims en route to a holy site were among the customers. The United Kingdom and United States also had notable developments in the fast food sphere, following the advent of the World War I. Equally, as fast food outlets became popular and more affordable, drive Ã¢â¬â in restaurants were introduced, alongside franchising in 1921 by A & W Root Beer which franchised distinctive syrup.In the traditional African society, Fast Food as an institution is equally evident. There have been hawkers of fast food items in these societies since time immemorial, and these have evolved into restaurants and fast food outlets. Fast food outlets existed in the traditional Nigeria society. The corner seller of Suya, Akara (fried bean cake), roasted plantain, Fried yam, roasted corn has been an age old feature of many Nigeria towns serving snacks for those on the go for everyone from little children to working adults.While traditional fast food delicacies still remain as well as mobile market fast food vendors, what has contributed significantly to the growth of fast food outlets in Nigeria has been increased urbanization and changing work roles. Since the 1960s, (U. S Library of congress), Nigeria has had one of the fastest population growth rate in the world. In 2010, almost half of all the population lives in the cities. As more people choose to settle in Nigeria crowded cities, the time to prepare meals has become more demanding.With more women joining the work force, their traditional roles have changed. This can further be explained by individualization thesis by Beck- Gernshein, (1998). Fast food can also be found in every nook and cranny of Nigeria, Tertiary instit ution like Obafemi Awolowo University is not an exception to this phenomenon of fast food. The example of contemporary and traditional fast food outlets such as Forks and Fingers, Banwill, sell contemporary meals while traditional meals such as Suya, Eba and Egusi soup, Semo are sold within OAU CAMPUS.The patronage of fast food outlets on campus has factors that influence it; these factors are dependent on the student economic status, family background, genders, e. t. c. 2 1. 1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: There is a general assumption in the Nigeria society that males patronize fast food outlets more, this assumption is backed up by the sexist patterning of division of labour (Bem, 1993; Friedan 1963; Lorber, 1994; Pateman, 1999; A. Rossi, 1964; Schaeffer, 2001). This study seeks to establish the kind of correlation existing between gender and patronage of fast food outlet.Many observers are quick to point at the economic gap between the rich and poor and the rich. Due to the unequal distribution of resources in the study, some people do not have the access to these resources. In the patronage of fast food outlet, there are different fast food on campus, the rate at which students patronize one fast food outlet the others varies for example forks and fingers vary with the rate at which they patrons Banwill. This finding seeks to explore if the socio-economic status of students is a determinant of fast food patronize on campus.The rate at which students patronize Banwill which is more expensive than others like forks and fingers varies. This is as a result of unequal distribution of economic resources in the society. Nevertheless, both the students from low and high income family still patronize fast food outlet despite their difference in socio economic status. 1. 2 RESEARCH QUESTION: The research questions include the following: 1. To what extent does family background influence studentÃ¢â¬â¢s patronage of fast food outlets? 2. How does gender influence the p atronage of fast food outlets? . How does income level affect fast food outlets patronage? 3 1. 3 OBJECTIVES The broad objective of this research is to look at the social correlates of fast food outlet patronage among OAU students. In achieving the broad objective of this research, the specific objective is to: 1. Determine the extent to which family background affects studentÃ¢â¬â¢s patronage. 2. Evaluate if gender can influence student patronage of fast food outlets. 3. Determine if the income level of students can affect their patronage of fast food outlet. 1. 4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDYThis study will help to draw the attention on the reasons why OAU students patronize fast food outlets, it will also explain the gender differences in the patronage of fast food outlets, it will help to understanding the adverse effects of patronizing fast food outlets, it will further explain the rationale behind varied opinions on sparing point of studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ time or hours cooking for the mselves. The findings will assist in understanding the Socio-economic influence that pre-dispose students from different family background to patronize or not patronize fast food outlets. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW Base on previous studies there are lack of studies regarding on fast food consumption locally and there are limited information on these study. Most of the studies regarding on fast food were studied at well developed foreign countries. In addition, there are lack of fast food research specifically consider the attribute of the consumer preference and consumption pattern. For example law, Hui, and Zhao (2004) showed that sta attitude, food quality and variety and environment ignificantly affect customers satisfaction in fast food outlet. Pettijohn and luke (1997) found that quality, cleanliness and value to be three most important attribute in fast food restaurants, while atmosphere and menu variety were relatively unimportant. When consumer considered the convenience and prices of eating place, the utilitarian value (task specific and economical aspect of product and services) of eating out plays an important role in restaurant evaluation and selection (Johns and Pine,2002:Park,2004).However these research do not specifically consider the attribute of consumers who show preferences for fast food product such as important of fast food, consumers concern on health and diseases and child preference of fast food and outlets. Fast food have become an omnipresent part of the moving consumer Goods (FMCG) sector in most development is relatively a new phenomenon that has occurred mainly over three to four decades (Anon, 2007). Fast food is define as ready-to-eat dishes sold by commercial establishment that may or may not have on site dinning accommodation ( Ozcelik,Akan&surucuoglu 2007:43).According to the institute of medicine,( 2006) Fast foods can also be describe as food and meals design for ready availability use or consumption. These food are sold at eating establishment focusing on quick availability or Ã¢â¬Å"take awaysÃ¢â¬ These food tend to be hi in saturated fats and carbohydrates (institute of medicine, 2006). Most fast foods are high in fat and sodium and low in fibre, vitamins and some minerals (Anon 2007) Although fast food in some form of other has been the immemorial, the current fast food phenomenon beyond these contexts is relatively recent.It began in the USA in July 1912 with the opening g of the fast food restaurants called Automat in New York. This restaurant caused such stir and became so popular that numerous other Automat restaurants were soon built around the country. This popularity lasted through the 11920Ã¢â¬â¢s well into the 5 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s (Schlosser, 2002:15). Kang Chung survey analysis explain that about 13. 3% of the students patronize fast food once a week; about 46. 7% of the students patronize fast food twice a week, about 23. 3% of the students patronize fast food thrice a week, and the remaining 16. % patronize fast food more than thrice a week. Hence, it shows that students usually patronize fast food twice a week. Out of the students patronizing fast food once a week, 75% of the students are female and the remainders are male. Out of the students patronizing fast food more than thrice, 60% of the students are male and the remainders are female. Hence, it shows that male patronize fast food more than female. According to Okome, Mojbol Olfnk, It has been argued that pre-colonial Nigeria had a gendered division of labor. However, the nature and implication of such a division of labor is often misinterpreted.While male dominance was built into the social system of some Nigerian ethnic groups, women played a significant and vital role in all aspects of the lives of their community For some scholars, this is due to the complimentarily of male and female roles and functions. This explains that, from time immemorial, division of labour has been separated between male an d female. Women have been saddled with the responsibility of cooking. When you think about fast food, there are something that you must not forget which is the most factor in fast food is gender.Christine Ton Nu, Patrick Macleod, Jacques Barthelemy(1996),effects of age and gender on Adolescents Food Habits and Preferences. They reported Reasons among Food Quality and Preference (251-262). This study explored food habits and preferences of 222 French adolescents of 10 to 20 years old. They completed a questionnaire about their eating habits and quoted 10 of their favourite and 10 of their most disliked food or beverages. They also mentioned any change in their preferences. These results show that food habits and tastes are mostly related to age and gender.Girls pay more attention to dietetics and snack less than boys. Young adolescents prefer bland and familiar foods whereas older ones learn to appreciate Ã¢â¬ËadultÃ¢â¬â¢ foods. As they grow older, chicken snack more, skip more m eals and seem more interested in foreign foods. Before puberty teenagers reject many foods they previously liked. After puberty they begin to appreciate some foods they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like before. Their food repertoire widens at this period because of social and cognitive influences. 6 Schlosser, E. , (2001) pointed out the most frequently reported reason for eating at fast food outlets is quick service.Laroche and Parsa, (2000) agreed with Schlosser, E. , and said that people decide to chose fast food outlets because they were worried about time. To prepare home meal food, it may take much of time to cook and served it compared to taking fast food. French S. A Et. al (2001) summaries that some people have other reason why they chose fast food outlets which might be in order for them to chose time with family, friend, by along with eating at fast food outlets, because they are quick and easy to get to and also a way of socializing with friend and family.Drewnowski and Spectre, (2000) contends that another factor that may influence consumption of fast food is by socioeconomic status. There have totally difference between people who have high wages with people who is have low wages in their life. Usually people who have low economic status, they more prefer to choose food that something not has high nutrition, but more reasonable and inexpensive price while wealthy person they prefer to choose branded restaurants rather than realized the ingredients and nutrients contain in the food.Herman and Polivy, (1984) contradicts/protests and emphasizes that the factor that influence of fast food consumption based on residential areas. He observed that people who stay at the rural areas are less consumed of fast food rather than people who stay at urban area because urban/town residential areas are nearer by the fast food outlets. 7 CHAPTER THREE THEORECTICAL FRAMEWORK 3. 0 INTRODUCTION This chapter focuses on the theoretical framework of the social correlate of fast food outlet among OAU students.Thus, the purpose of a good theoretical framework is to explain a given social phenomenon and to define the interrelated concepts, definition and propositions that represent a systematic view of the subject of study (Ogunbameru 2006). Although, there are many theories that can be used, in this study, rational choice theory and Mcdonaldization theory are employed. 3. 1 RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY Rational choice theory is derived from the neo-classical economics (as well as utilitarianism and game theory, Levi et al,1990,Linden berge,2001;Simpson,2007).The focus in rational theory is on actors. Actors are seen as being purposive or as having intentionality that is actors have ends or goals towards which their actions are aimed. Actors also are seen as having preferences (or values, utilities). Of importance is the fact that action is undertaken to achieve objectives that are consistent with an actorÃ¢â¬â¢s preference hierarchy. Although, the rational choice the ory starts with actorÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose or intentions, it must take into consideration at least two major constraints on action.The first constraint is the scarcity of resources. Actors have different resources as well as differential access to other resources. The attainment of ends may be for those with lo of resources, the achievement of ends may be relatively easy. However, for those with few, if any, resources, the attainments of ends may be difficult or impossible. Related to scarcity of resources is the idea of opportunity cost (Friedman and Hechter, 1998). In pursuing a given end, actors must keep an eye on the costs of forgoing heir next-most-attractive action.A second source of constraints an individual action is social institution. The institutional constraints provide both positive encourage certain action and discourage others. Friedman and Hechter put it that individualÃ¢â¬â¢s actions are checked from birth to death by family and school rules, churches, synagogue and mosques, hospitals, etc. By 8 restricting the feasible set of course of action available to the individuals, enforceable rules of the game include norms, laws, agendas etc. 3. 2 RELEVANCE OF RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY TO THE STUDYThe central theme and the main lesson that may be learnt and applicable to this study from the rational choice approach is that students have the goals or aims to achieve good grade or graduate from the university, but there are some challenges they have to go through. In a case where a student is being instructed by his or her lecturer to finish a project or assignment within a given period of time, such student will have to choose between alternative of forgoing his or her cooking time for his or her project or assignment, he or she may choose to save time by patronizing fast-food. More so, another rea of relevance to this study is that some students have the intention to forgo cooking for reading, but the resources (money) needed to buy the food are limited. Students always make use of this slogan Ã¢â¬Å"Aye o PoÃ¢â¬ , (i. e. No time to do anything else on campus like, cooking and other things). That is despite the differences in the income level among students they still patronize fast food outlet not minding their class in the society or social economic status. Being rational-calculative beings, the time it takes to prepare food compared to patronizing the fast food outlets has been rationally analyzed by the students.It obviously takes more time for preparing food than patronizing the fast food outlets such as the option of patronizing is high. Some students maintained that it cost more to prepare food than opting to fast food centers; calculating the cost of obtaining the raw food stuffs with the stress involved and the constraint of the time-table/academic course work, it appeared to them that the best option available is to get their food-(prepared food) from the fast food centers on campus.In a situation where the time table d oes not allow leisure, for example having a class from 8:00am till 12:00pm at a stretch, such student involved considered that the best option is to patronize the fast food joint because of nonavailability of time to cook due to the constraint created by the lecture schedule and time-table. The intention and decision by students varies i. e. ambivalent; depending on the income level in term of pocket money or allowance gotten by the students. 9Since society is stratified, the family background of the students will be a factor that influences the decision and intention of the students. This tries to explain that humans are pleasure seekers according to Jeremy Bentham but the constraint from social institutions e. g. (family, peer, school, church) and the non-availability of resources due to the variance in its distribution has a major role to play in their decisions, goal attainments etc. The allowance of the students from home also contributes to the decision of patronizing the fast food outlets.For some students that claimed to have little or insufficient allowance from home, they prefer to maintain the little on them, buying raw food stuffs and reduced to cooking compare to patronizing the fast food outlets contrary to those with high and sufficient weekly or monthly allowance from home that have considered patronizing the fast food outlets as better option in so far that there is financial ability in their disposal. 3. 3 MCDONALIZATION THEORY This theory explains that the drive towards bureaucratization and rationalization is largely motivated by profit.Companies believe they cut cost and increase profits through rationalization. The phenomenon of Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢McDonaldizationÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ which Ritzer elicits from his analysis of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s fast food restaurants encompasses both Production and consumption and is applied to a broad scope of economic, political, social and cultural artifacts and mechanisms. Ritzer is able to apply his concept to p henomenon ranging from work to leisure, from food to media, from education to politics. Such mode of post modern theory help us to critically view key social dynamics institution and problem the exemplifying the major strength of social theory.McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s restaurant has become a better exemplar of current form of rationality and its ultimately irrational and harmful human consequences. McDonaldizationÃ¢â¬â¢s institution is part of a general drive to rationalization. 10 They aim to increase: 1. Efficiency: choosing the best quickest or least difficult means to a given end. 2. Calculability: Emphasis on the quantitative aspects of the product being sold. 3. Predictability: involves the customer knowing what to expect from a given producer of goods and services. 4. Control: A way to keep a complicated system running smoothly. . 4 RELEVANCE OF MCDONALIZATION THEORY TO THE STUDY. Using the principles of McDonalization, success has been recorded by workers, students and managers. These principles have offered students, workers, manager e. t. c. Efficiency, calculability, predictability and control. These principles will be explained and how it has applied to our study. Ritzer (1996) defines efficiency as Ã¢â¬ËThe optimum method for getting from one point to anotherÃ¢â¬â¢. To the customer or students of fast food outlets, this means Ã¢â¬Ëthe best way of getting from being hungry to being full.In this contemporary society where all consumers varying from students, workers, lecturers, etc. are in a rush to meet up with tight schedules, e. g. lecture time table, submission of assignments and other demands of the society might turn to fast food outlets for their survival, due to the stress and time constraint faced in cooking. This can be affirmed by (Ritzer, 1996) who stressed that cooking is inefficient because it can take hours to get fed whereas traditional and continual food prepared in this fast food takes minutes and it is also efficient.In major fas t food outlets, Ã¢â¬Ëquantity (especially a large quantity) tends to become a surrogate for quality. (Ritzer1996). There is an emphasis on producing a high quantity, get a lot of food quickly, and the owners gets a lot of work out of their workers. However, the consumers may not get a quality dining experience, because they are rushed and they have a limited choice. 11 CALCULABILITY: Great importance is given to calculability to an emphasis on quality, often to the detriment of quality. This principle explains the adverse effects of fast food outlets on customers or students.The owners and employees of fast food outlets are majorly concerns with the quick rate of turner, with this, it affect the quality of food they produce, because they are after quantity and not quality. Similarly, customers are expected to spend as little time as possible in the fast food outlets. The drive through the window reduces the time to zero, but if customers desire to eat in the restaurant, the chairs may be designed to impel them to leave after about 20 minutes. (Some students go for relaxation). The emphasis from speed clearly has a negative effect on the quality of food at a fast food outlet.Also, the emphasis on how fast the work is to be done means that the customers cannot be served high quality food. PREDICTABILITY: What this theory explains is that, there is an expected ways the customers are attended to by the workers of fast food outlets and there is a designed way of selling and buying in the outlet e. g. before going to buying food in forks and fingers or Iya- Ila, you have the fore- knowledge of what you expect from the fast food outlets. In these outlets, there are processes which both the customers and the outlets workers must follow in the course of their transaction.Taking Iya-Ila as example, the process in which customers order their food, the customers queue for their food, and also queue for the soup. The predictability has been able to posit that, students h ave the fore knowledge of what to expect from the fast food. 12 CHAPTER FOUR METHODOLOGY 4. 0 INTRODUCTION Methodology according to Oxford Dictionary of Sociology is used to refers to the methods and general approach to empirical research of a particular discipline or even a particular large study, although, the term Ã¢â¬Ëresearch techniquesÃ¢â¬â¢ is perhaps more apt in this context.This chapter describes the place of study, the sampling technique, collection of data and processing, and problems encountered in the field. 4. 1 STUDY AREA The research work was studied in Obafemi Awolowo University campus Ile-Ife, Osun State. The focus areas are: 1. Academic area 2. Student Union Building Area 3. Hostel area 4. New market / New Buka Area. . 4. 2 RESEARCH DESIGN Exploratory research design was used in this study. It serves the purpose of satisfying ones curiosity and desire for better understanding. It was also used to test the feasibility of understanding a more careful study. 4. 3 SAMPLING TECHNIQUEThe sampling technique used in this study is the probability or Random sampling, specifically, systematic sampling procedure to arrive at the target respondents for the study. 13 4. 4 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT In this study, quantitative instrument of data collection was used which entails administering of questionnaire. The questionnaires were divided into sections. The first section is concerned with socio-economic and demographic characteristics of respondents such as their age, marital status, religious belief, while the other section is about income level like school allowance, monthly allowance and additional income.The questionnaire contains both the open and close-ended questions, closeÃ¢â¬âended questions constantly to find out attitudes of respondents if they patronize the fast food outlets and the positive and negative effects that prompt it. It has a closed ended questions in order to minimize irrelevant responses and also to make it easier for the respondent to answer as he or she only has to choose a category. Open ended questionnaire was also included in the questionnaire to allow more opportunity for creativity and self-expression by the respondent.It also helps to deal with complex issues that cannot be condensed into few small categories. 4. 5 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE OAU Campus is divided into areas, the areas chosen was the ACADEMIC AREA, STUDENT UNION BUILDING AREA, HOSTELS AREA and NEW MARKET or NEW BUKA AREA. The rationale of selection was systematic through the process of balloting, two faculties were chosen out of the 11 FACULTIES, (Faculty Law and health sciences,) five questionnaires were administered to each faculty to make it 10.Fork and fingers and fivers were chosen in the student union building area based on the food outlets are patronized by 10 questionnaires were administered each to the students to make it 20 questionnaires. The respondents chosen in the BUKA AREA and NEW BUKA MARKET were also done ran domly. 10 questionnaires were administered. Two hostels were chosen by balloting, Moremi and Angola were picked, and Five questionnaires were administered to each hostels make it 10. In all, 50 questionnaires were administered to these areas. 14 4. 6 DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDUREAfter the collection of data, analysis and presentation was done in order to give meanings to the raw data collected by using the statistical package for social science (SPSS). 4. 7 PROBLEM ENCOUNTERED DURING THE STUDY Many of the respondents at the initial stage complained that they did not have the time to fill the questionnaire and were too busy preparing for their examinations as the research was carried out during this period; some opted out of the research session because they were not in the mood to fill the questionnaires. With persuasion, some filled the questionnaire.The female were eager to answer the question, while the males felt reluctant and demanded for a tangible reward. Another problem encountere d was the non response especially on the open-ended questions that requires the respondent volition to answer questions thus; they filled some of the questions arbitrarily. However despite all challenges, the study achieved a great success. 15 CHAPTER FIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION 5. 0 INTRODUCTION This chapter focuses on the discussion, analysis and presentation of tables on the various results obtained from the survey.The discussion herein covers: the socio demographic characteristics of respondent used in the survey, and a discussion on the three objectives: to examine the extent to which family background affects students patronage; to evaluate if gender can influence students patronage of fast food outlets; and to determine if the income level of students affects their patronage of fast food outlet. 4. 2: Socio demographic characteristics Table 1 Age group 15-19 years 20-24 years 25-29 years 30-34 years 40-44 years Total Frequency 6 30 9 1 1 47 Percentage (%) 12. 8 63. 8 19. 1 2. 1 2. 1 100. 0 Sex Male Female Total Frequency 23 27 50Percentage (%) 46. 0 54. 0 100. 0 16 Marital status Single Married Total Frequency 48 2 50 Percentage (%) 96. 0 4. 0 100. 0 Religion Christianity Muslim Traditional Total Frequency 41 8 1 50 Percentage (%) 82. 0 16. 0 2. 0 100. 0 Table 1 shows the socio demographic characteristics of respondents used in the survey. The result obtained from students shows they fall between the age range 15-44 years old, with 12. 8 percent in 15-19 age group, 63. 8 percent of those in 20-24 age group being the highest percentage, 19. 1 percent those in ages between 25-29 years of age, 2. 1 percent of those in 30-34 years old and 40-44 years old respectively.The sex distribution includes 46. 0 percent male and 54. 0 percent female. Their marital status includes majority being single 96. 0 percent, and the married surveyed are 4. 0 percent of total surveyed population. Religious affiliations of respondents are Christianity 82. 0 percent, Mus lim 16. 0 percent, and traditional 2. 0 percent. 17 4. 3: Examining the extent to which family background affects students patronage: Table 2 Variables How are your meals By your mum been prepared at home? By cook By relatives Others-self, sisters Total Frequency 35 5 1 7 48 Percentage (%) 72. 10. 4 2. 1 14. 6 100. 0 If none of the options Yes above, do they give you No money to buy food at Total home? 1 1 2 50. 0 50. 0 100. 0 If yes, does it influence Yes your patronage of fast food outlets on campus 1 100. 0 How often do you cook in your hostel? Trice a day Once a day Twice a week Frequency 10 26 8 Percentage (%) 20. 4 53. 1 16. 3 10. 2 Others- Twice a day, 5 often, never Total 49 100. 0 18 Table 2 examines the extent to which family background affects studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ patronage of fast food. The result shows that meals are prepared at home by majorly by mum 72. percent, followed by cook 10. 4 percent, self and sister 14. 6 percent, and by relative 2. 1 percent. Of all the respond ent only two respondents answer the question do they give you money at home, if meals are not prepare? This has a single positive and negative result of yes and no. And the one person who reported receiving money at home says it influences his or her patronage of fast food. The frequency of cooking in the hostel is reported as once a day 53. 1 percent, trice a day 20. 4 percent, twice a week 16. 3 percent, others includes twice a day, often, and never 10. 2 percent. 4. : Evaluate if gender can influence students patronage of fast food outlets Table 3 Variables Who do you think Male Frequency 32 15 47 Percentage (%) 68. 1 31. 9 100. 0 patronize fast food joint Female most Total State your reasons for your answer above Frequency They have no cooking 8 skill No enough time to 10 Percentage (%) 18. 2 22. 7 devote to cooking Laziness Gender role issue Taking friends out to eat Total 17 3 6 44 38. 6 6. 8 13. 6 100. 0 19 Figure 4. 3 evaluates if gender can influence students patronage of f ast food. It is reported that male patronize fast food 68. 1 percent more than female 31. 9 percent.Reasons for the high patronage of fast food given are laziness especially on the part of males 38. 6 percent, believing there is no enough time to devote to cooking 22. 7 percent, lack of cooking skill 18. 2 percent, taking friends, especially girlfriends, out to eat 13. 6 percent and men believing it is duty of a particular gender 6. 8 percent. 4. 5: Determining if the income level of students can affect patronage of fast food outlet: Table 4. 1 Variable How do you receive Weekly your school allowance Monthly Between monthly No response Total 1 50 2. 0 100. 0 weekly Frequency 11 26 and 12 Percentage (%) 22. 52. 0 24. 0 How much is your 2,000-5,000 12 17 20 49 24. 5 34. 7 40. 8 100. 0 monthly allowance income 6,000-10,000 Above 10,000 Total Figure 4. 5 determines if the income level of students can affect students' patronage of fast food outlet. Table 4. 1 describes the income level o f surveyed respondents. This shows that majority of respondents receives their income monthly 52. 0 percent, this is followed by between weekly and monthly 24. 0 percent, weekly 22. 0 percent, the no response rate was 2. 0 percent. The reported monthly income receive by respondents are within #2,000 to 20 #5,000 24. percent, #6,000 to #10,000 34. 7 percent, and above #10,000 40. 8 percent, having a max of #50,000 from those surveyed report. Table 4. 2: Other sources of income and choice of fast food Variable Do you have other Yes Frequency 31 19 50 Percentage (%) 62. 0 38. 0 100. 0 source of income apart No from your monthly Total allowance? If yes, what are the Scholarship sources? Business Relatives Others- 1 18 9 3. 2 58. 1 29. 0 9. 7 craftsmanship, 3 friends, working Total 31 100. 0 Can your additional Yes 27 14 41 65. 9 34. 1 100. 0 income motivate you to No patronize outlet? fast food TotalWhat is your choice of Forks and fingers fast food outlet on Banwill Iya-Ila 26 8 5 55. 3 17. 0 10. 6 campus? 21 Others- Captain cook, 8 New buka, Depullars Total 47 17. 0 100. 0 Table 4. 2 shows other sources of reported income. 62. 0 percent reported has having other sources of income apart from monthly allowance from home. This sources includes business ventures 58. 1 percent, relatives 29. 0 percent, scholarship 3. 2 percent, others are craftsmanship, friends and working 9. 7 percent. Additional income is also reported to be a motivating factor to patronizing fast food outlet 65. percent. The choice of fast food outlet are forks and fingers 55. 3 percent, banwill 17. 0 percent, Iya-Ila 10. 6 percent, others are captain cook, new buka, and depillars 17. 0 percent among surveyed respondents. Table 4. 3: Cross tabulation showing how much of monthly income or allowance goes to fast food What percentages of your allowance go to fast food Income 2,000-5,000 6,000-10,000 Above 10,000 Total 5-10% 7 (63. 6%) 9 (60. 0%) 5 (26. 3%) 21 (47. 7%) 15-20% 1 (9. 1%) 4 (26. 7%) 3 (1 5. 8%) 8 (18. 2%) 25-30% 3 (27. 3%) 2 (13. 3%) 11 (57. 9%) 16 (35. 6%) 11 (100. %) 15 (100. 0%) 19 (100. 0%) 45 (100. 0%) Total Table 4. 3 shows a cross tabulation of how much income or allowance goes to fast food outlet. 10% of income goes to fast food outlet by those who receive between #2,000 to #5,000 naira as monthly income, 1 person reports 15 to 20 percent of income goes to fast food, and 3 person reports 25-30 percent goes to fast food. Those that receive between #6,000 to #10,000 9 persons reports 5 to 10 percent going to fast food, 4 persons report 15 to 20 percent goes to fast food, and 2 persons reports 25 to 30 percent goes to fast food. 22Those that receive above #10,000 naira 5 persons reports that 5 to 10 percent goes to fast food, 3 persons reports that 15 to 20 percent goes to fast food, and 11 persons reports that 25 to 30 percent of allowances goes to fast food. For those whose income falls between #2,000 to #10,000 naira, that is 63. 6 percent and 60. 0 percent, the highest percentage of income that is spent in fast food outlet is between 5 to 10 percent, while for those whose income is above #10,000 naira, 57. 9 percent of them spend a higher percentage of their income at the fast food outlet 25 to 30 percent.DISCUSSION Findings in this study suggest that the economic status can be a determining factor for studentÃ¢â¬â¢s patronage of fast food outlets. This can be affirmed by the fact that respondents who receive the lowest income (#2,000 Ã¢â¬â 5000) spend less of their income on fast food outlets i. e. 63. 6% of them spend just 10% of their income on fast food. This empirical study background can influence studentÃ¢â¬â¢s patronage as can be seen in table 4. 3 where by 72. 9% of the respondents have their meals cooked by their mum, cook by other relatives while just 7%, cook their food themselves at home.This goes further to imply that greater percentage of the students do not cook by themselves. Hence, they tend patronize fast foo d outlets. Students who have their meals cooked by their mum tend to be lazy in preparing their own food, this can also be tested by the fact that 38% of respondents belief laziness contribute to the reasons why students patronize fast food outlets. This study also establish the fact that individuals gender affect the patronage of fast food outlets as more male patronized than female (68. 1% male patronize fast food outlets while 31. % female patronize it). 23 SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION 6. 0 SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The definition of fast food is inconsistence but equally, fast food is the term given to food that can be prepared and served with low preparation time. The term Ã¢â¬Å"Fast FoodÃ¢â¬ was recognized by Merriam-Webster in 1951. The historical background of fast food can be traced to urban development which was deeply rooted in sociological inevitably. Large urban cities like United Kingdom, United state, Paris, and London witness the emergence of fast food.I n the traditional society, fast food is equally evident, the example of traditional meals such as Suya, Eba, and Egusi soup, Semo are sold within OAU Campus. Academic and scientific research revealed that, most undergraduate students patronize fast food outlets, which has indirectly affected their cooking culture and the level of satisfaction derived from the consumption of this fast foods. However, other relevant literatures relating to social, economic status of the students however were also discussed. Rational choice theory was used as a theoretical framework to explain how students make choices in order to have good grade.Despite the differences in the income level among students they still patronize fast food outlets not mining their social class and socio-economic status. This study depict that, student maintain the cost to prepare food than opting to fast food outlets. The principle on the study of McDonalization has been recorded by workers, students and managers, looking a t their efficiency, predictability, calculability, and control Methodology describes the place of study, sampling technique, collection of data and processing and problems encountered in the research work.The exploratory research was carried out among the OAU students using the probability sampling, systematic procedure and the problem encountered on the research work is that most of the respondents complained that have the time to fill the questionnaires. 24 Data analysis and discussion focuses on the various results obtain from the survey. This study has been able to cover the social-demographic characteristics of respondent used in the survey looking at the extent to which family background affect studentÃ¢â¬â¢s patronage, how gender influenced students patronage of fast food outlets. 25 6. 1 RECOMMENDATIONFrom the analysis we can see that most parent do the cooking, parent should be encouraged more to train up their wards on how to prepare meal on their own. ( They can teach t hem how to prepare fast food on their own instead of buying outside). Food and nutrition should also be included in all school curriculums. Gender role of cooking should not be confined to the female child alone; there should be a balance in the societal roles. This will encourage the male to also participate in cooking activities at home so that such child will be able to cook for himself/herself when they get to school.Moderate allowance should be given to student that receives more allowance because more than half of their money goes to fast food restaurant which disallow them from cooking in school. 26 6. 2 CONCLUSION Conclusively, fast food should not be totally criticized because it has been a major source of survival for those that do not have the time and the skill on how to prepare meal on their own. At the same time the students should be discourage from patronizing fast food outlets. The importance of fast food on campus cannot be over emphasizes.The rise or emergence of fast food has been a source of help to social class or group. Consequently in examining the extent through which family background affect patronage of fast food, we see that most meals are often prepared by their mothers and also student who receive more income from home tend to patronize fast food than those who do not receive much. Also, those who have their meal prepare by a cook tend to patronize fast food outlet more than others who know how to prepare their meals themselves.We are able to conclude that male student patronize fast food outlet more than their female counterpart because of the various reason associated with this which are laziness, lack of cooking skill or time. Evidently student income level also goes a long way in affecting student patronage of fast food outlets; those who receive more money from home patronize fast food more. So therefore the survey carried out shows that all these variable such as economic, family background, income level etc goes a long way in affecting student patronage of fast food outlets. 27 REFERENCESChristine Ton Nu, Patrick Macleod, Jacques Barthelemy. (1996). Effects of Age and Gender on Adolescents Food Habits and Preferences. Christine E. Blake, Carol M. Devine, Elaine Wethington, Margaret Jastran, Tracy J. Farrell, and Carole A. Bisogni. (2009). Employed Parents Ã¢â¬ËSatisfaction with Food-Choice Coping Strategies. Influence of Gender and Structure. Emily Kroshus, MPH. (2008). Gender, Marital Status, and Commercially Prepared Food Expenditure. Ayse Ozfer Ozcelik, Lale Sariye Akan & Metin Saip Surucuoglu. (2007). An Evaluation of Fast-Food Preferences According to Gender (2007).Humanity & Social Sciences Journal 2(1), 43-50 Aikman, S. N & Graham, D. (2006). Food attitudes, eating behaviour, and the information underlying food attitudes. Olakunle A. Ogunbameru,Bankole O. 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